- 历年考题 （800道）
- 历年考题 （800道）
- 历年考题 （800道）
- 历年考题 （800道）
- 历年考题 （800道）
HI~大家好！又到了晨读团一起学习TED演讲的时间。今天，让我们来一起收听一段与环保相关的演讲。两位来自巴厘岛的小姑娘，依靠自身的力量，终于让地方政府做出了妥协，在全岛全面实施禁塑政策。她们在全过程中得到了很多启示，这些启示对于我们的人生也同样适用。接下来，就让我们来一起收听这一段题为“Our campaign to ban plastic bags in Bali”的演讲片段吧~
Melati Wijsen (MW): Bali -- island of gods.
Isabel Wijsen (IW): A green paradise.
MW: Or ... a paradise lost. Bali: island ofgarbage.
IW: In Bali, we generate 680 cubic meters ofplastic garbage a day. That's about a 14-story building. And when it comes toplastic bags, less than five percent gets recycled.
MW: We know that changes the image you may haveof our island. It changed ours, too, when we learned about it, when we learnedthat almost all plastic bags in Bali end up in our drains and then in ourrivers and then in our ocean. And those that don't even make it to the ocean,they're either burned or littered.
IW: So we decided to do something about it. Andwe've been working for almost three years now to try to say no to plastic bagson our home island. And we have had some significant successes.
MW: We are sisters, and we go to the best schoolon earth: Green School, Bali. Green School is not only different in the waythat it is built out of bamboo, but also in the way that it teaches. We aretaught to become leaders of today, something a normal textbook cannot match.
IW: One day we had a lesson in class where welearned about significant people, like Nelson Mandela, Lady Diana and MahatmaGandhi. Walking home that day, we agreed that we also wanted to be significant.Why should we wait until we were grown up to be significant? We wanted to dosomething now.
MW: Sitting on the sofa that night, webrainstormed and thought of all the issues facing Bali. And one thing thatstood out to us the most was the plastic garbage. But that is a huge problem.So we looked into what was a realistic target for us kids: plastic bags. Andthe idea was born.
IW: We started researching, and let's just say,the more we learned, there was nothing good about plastic bags. And you knowwhat? We don't even need them.
MW: We were really inspired by the efforts to sayno to plastic bags in many other places, from Hawaii to Rwanda and to severalscities like Oakland and Dublin.
IW: And so the idea turned into the launch of"Bye Bye Plastic Bags." MW: In the years that we have beencampaigning, we have learned a lot.
一个人无法做到全部（Cooperation, Like-minded people）
Lesson number one: you cannot do it all byyourself. You need a big team of like-minded kids, and so we formed the Bye ByePlastic Bags crew. The volunteer team includes children from all over theisland, from both international and local schools. And together with them, westarted a multi-layered approach, based on an on- and off-line signaturepetition, educational and inspirational presentations at schools and we raisegeneral awareness at markets, festivals, beach clean-ups. And last but notleast, we distribute alternative bags, bags like net bags, recycled newspaperbags or 100 percent organic material bags, all made by local initiatives on theisland.
IW: We run a pilot village, home of 800 families.The village mayor was our first friend and he loved our T-shirts, so thathelped. We focused on making the customers aware, because that's where thechange needs to happen. The village is already two-thirds along the way ofbecoming plastic bag free.
Our first attempts to get the government of Balion board failed. So we thought, "Hmm ... a petition with one millionsignatures. They can't ignore us, right?"
IW: But, who would have guessed one millionsignatures is, like, a thousand times a thousand?
以创新方式思考（Think Outside of the Box）
We got stuck -- till we learned lesson numbertwo: think outside the box. Someone mentioned that the Bali airport handles 16million arrivals and departures a year.
MW: But how do we get into the airport? And herecomes lesson number three: persistence. Off we headed to the airport. We gotpast the janitor. And then it was his boss's boss, and then the assistantoffice manager, and then the office manager, and then ... we got shuffled downtwo levels and thought, well, here comes the janitor again.
And after several days knocking on doors and justbeing kids on a mission, we finally got to the commercial manager of Baliairports. And we gave him the "Bali of plastic bags" speech, andbeing a very nice man, he said, [imitating the man's voice] "I cannotbelieve what I'm about say, but I'm going to give authorization to collectsignatures behind customs and immigrations."
IW: In our first hour and a half there, we gotalmost 1,000 signatures. How cool is that?
Lesson number four: you need champions at alllevels of society, from students to commercial managers to famous people. Andthanks to the attraction of Green School, we had access to a steady stream ofcelebrities. Ban Ki Moon taught us that Secretary-Generals of the United Nationsdon't sign petitions even if kids ask nicely. But he promised to spread theword, and now we work closely with the United Nations.
MW: Jane Goodall taught us the power of apeople's network. She started with just one Roots & Shoots group and nowshe has 4,000 groups around the world. We are one of them. She's a realinspiration.
If you're a fellow Rotarian, nice to meet you.We're Interactors, the youngest department of Rotary International.
IW: But we have also learned much about patience,
MW: how to deal with frustrations,
MW: we learned more about the Balinese and theirculture
IW: and we learned about the importance ofcommitment.
MW: It's not always easy. Sometimes it does get alittle bit hard to walk your talk.
IW: But last year, we did exactly that. We wentto India to give a talk, and our parents took us to visit the former privatehouse of Mahatma Gandhi. We learned about the power of hunger strikes he did toreach his goals. Yes, by the end of the tour, when we met our parents again, weboth made a decision and said, "We're going on a hunger strike!"
MW: And you can probably imagine their faces. Ittook a lot of convincing, and not only to our parents but to our friends and toour teachers as well. Isabel and I were serious about doing this. So we metwith a nutritionist, and we came up with a compromise of not eating fromsunrise to sunset every day until the governor of Bali would agree to meet withus to talk about how to stop plastic bags on Bali.
IW: Our "mogak makan," as it is calledin Bahasa Indonesia, started. We used social media to support our goal andalready on day two, police started to come to our home and school. What werethese two girls doing? We knew we weren't making the governor look his best bydoing this food strike -- we could have gone to jail. But, hey, it worked. Twenty-fourhours later, we were
MW: And there he was --waiting for us to meet andspeak, being all supportive and thankful for our willingness to care for thebeauty and the environment of Bali.
He signed a promise to help the people of Balisay no to plastic bags. And we are now friends, and on a regular basis, weremind him and his team of the promises he has made. And indeed, recently
IW: Also, at the International Airport of Bali,one of our supporters is planning to start a plastic bag-free policy by 2016.
MW: Stop handing out free plastic bags and bringin your own reusable bag is our next message to change that mindset of thepublic.
IW: Our short-term campaign, "One Island /One Voice," is all about this. We check and recognize the shops andrestaurants that have declared themselves a plastic bag-free zone, and we putthis sticker at their entrance and publish their names on social media and someimportant magazines on Bali. And conversely, that highlights those who do nothave the sticker.
MW: So, why are we actually telling you all ofthis? Well, partly, it is because we are proud of the results that, togetherwith our team, we have been able to reach. But also because along the way, wehave learned that kids can do things. We can make things happen. Isabel and Iwere only 10 and 12 years old when we started this. We never had a businessplan, nor a fixed strategy, nor any hidden agendas -- just the idea in front ofus and a group of friends working with us. All we wanted to do was stop thoseplastic bags from wrapping and suffocating our beautiful home. Kids have aboundless energy and a motivation to be the change the world needs.
IW: So to all the kids of this beautiful butchallenging world: go for it! Make that difference. We're not telling you it'sgoing to be easy. We're telling you it's going to be worth it. Us kids may onlybe 25 percent of the world's population, but we are 100 percent of the future.
MW: We still have a lot of work to do, but knowthat we still not stop until the first question asked when arriving at the Baliairports will be
Both: "Welcome to Bali, do you have nayplastic bags to declare?"
Om shanti shanti shanti om.